Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B.
From Wollstonecraft to Mill: Introduction Barricades in a Parisian Street, Revised by Kathryn Sklar. Feminist ideas and social movements emerged in Europe, Great Britain, and the United States in an international context that promoted the migration of people and ideas across national boundaries.
These documents illuminate that process. Although the term feminist did not appear until the late nineteenth century in France and somewhat later in Great Britain, the U.
These early feminists included both women and men who advocated greater equality for women in public institutions, such as the church and government, and in the family and household, and the equality of the sexes more generally.
Feminist ideas were fueled by major social, intellectual, political, economic and cultural transformations in Europe and North America. Socially, the expansion of literacy created greater and more equal access to knowledge among middle-class and working class-people.
Intellectual changes known as the Enlightenment often challenged the authority of religion and worked independently of state-established churches, creating opportunities for feminists to do the same.
Enlightenment thinkers valued experience and the evidence of the senses, emphasized acquired rather than ascribed traits, and raised fundamental though unresolved questions about traits ascribed to women.
Politically, the Glorious Revolution in England set the stage for more far-reaching reforms in the following centuries. Revolutionary movements in the United States s and France sdominated by middle-class or bourgeois groups, overthrew monarchical orders that claimed to rule by divine right.
In Europe and Great Britain socialist movements vigorously critiqued the new industrial order of the s and 40s, and joined with middle-class and working-class movements in the revolutions of to extend popular rule.
When even these moderate republics were overthrown in the counter-revolutions ofwomen lost any chance at meaningful political participation. Economically, the industrial revolution and expansion of consumer markets transformed the production and distribution of goods, wealth, and services on both sides of the Atlantic.
In the process, the home was reconstructed, ideally, as a place of middle-class child rearing, consumption, and leisure, rather than productive labor.
Factories, shops and other public venues were now considered the primary arenas of production. Communication and transportation revolutions wrought by mail service, telegraph, railroads and steamships carried ideas and people further and faster than previous generations had dreamed possible.
Feminists in the U. Culturally, Romanticism generated new ideas and values that blended with older Enlightenment ideas and values to produce unprecedented optimism about human destinies and capabilities.
Many radical Christian movements, working outside state-sponsored churches, also endorsed gender equality and added religious zeal to the momentum for change. Her book, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, became the cornerstone upon which many subsequent feminist writers constructed arguments that advocated the equality of the sexes.
Arguing by analogy to the "Rights of Man" expressed in the American and French Revolutions, Wollstonecraft insisted that women were born equal to men.WOMEN'S LITERATURE IN THE 19TH CENTURY: OVERVIEWS ELAINE SHOWALTER (ESSAY DATE ) Showalter discusses the implications of identifying female sensibilities in the literary output of nineteenth-century female authors, identifying three distinct phases in the development of themes and gender battles as addressed in women's writing in the.
- Nineteenth Century Literature Heroines and Conformity By definition, a heroine is a woman who would typically encompass the qualities of .
Sep 02, · Women’s literature gained widespread prominence by the end of the 19 th century. Feminist causes and the expansion of education for women led to many more female writers than any preceding century (Bomarito & Hunter, ).Reviews: Hannah More was one of the most prolific and widely read writers of her time.
the poor and, as a result, increased women’s influence in social work. However, although she advocated female education, she did so only in the context of an educated domesticity.
Although they lost popularity in the nineteenth century, her work has recently. Modern critical analysis of nineteenth-century women's literature seeks, in part, to understand the underlying reasons that women authors, especially in America, Britain, and France, were able to gain such widespread exposure and prominence in an age known for its patriarchal and often dismissive.
The women writers she accepted as editor helped to promote women as professional writers. The Magazine included correspondence, stories, poetry, music, and fashion plates. Hale preferred to depict women in simple dress as opposed to other magazines, which showed women in more flamboyant, European styles.